All the Basics:
Chakra meditations focus on balancing or opening one or all of the chakras.
In chakra meditation, it is key to embrace whatever arises in awareness, to release trauma in a specific chakra and balance the others as a team.
How to Perform the Meditation:
Begin in a comfortable seat with a long spine. Close your eyes. Start to either picture a specific color corresponding to a chakra or chakras or a mantra (sound). You can also place your focus on a specific chakra by internally placing your gaze on it or placing a hand on the chakra.
It may also be helpful to breath in a specific area of your body and focus on releasing the cause of the trauma to the area.
Another practice is focusing on a different chakra every day of the week.
Sound, Mantra or Visualization:
Each chakra corresponds to a specific color and sound. For instance, the Root Chakra is red and its sound is "lam." [See the full list here.]
In chakra meditation, visualizing one of the chakra colors is an option, as is focusing on repeating its sound.
Each chakra also had multiple affirmations that can correspond with the chakra. For instance, "I am safe in the world around me," for the Root Chakra.
Origin + History:
The chakra system arose within the Tantric tradition, during the second half of the first millennium. Soon after people began gaining an understand of the chakra system and meditation, it arose as a practice.
It gained steam over the past couple of centuries in the West, as eastern philosophy became commonplace.